Published on 12/27/2016 3:23 pm


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Published on 12/27/2016 3:20 pm


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Published on 12/27/2016 3:02 pm


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Published on 07/21/2015 3:37 pm

Image titleDr. M.L. Goenka
Senior IVF Specialist | IHR


Motherhood by Surrogacy


Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy that is not genetically related to her and her husband, with the intention to carry it to term and hand over the child to the genetic parents for whom she is acting as a surrogate. The first report of a baby being born by IVF surrogacy was in the year 1985. The earliest mention of natural surrogacy is in the Old Testament of the Bible.



TYPES OF SURROGACY

Traditional surrogacy :
In traditional surrogacy arrangement, sperms are provided by the intended father and egg is from the surrogate. The host is also the genetic mother of the child. The procedure is usually done by artificial insemination or Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI). Traditional surrogacy is also known as Partial Surrogacy or Straight Surrogacy.


Gestational Surrogacy :
In Gestational or IVF surrogacy the gametes (egg and sperm) are provided by the intended parents

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Published on 03/30/2015 2:20 pm
Azoospermia is complete absence of sperm in the semen. Azoospermia is seen in 15 to 20% of male infertility situations.

What causes Azoospermia?
Sperm are produced in seminiferous tubules of testes and delivered via epididymis, vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts, to urethra and outside. The process of sperm production is controlled by hormonal stimulation of the testis and the semeniferous tubules. Azoospermia is classified into three major types: Pre-testicular azoospermia, Testicular and Post-testicular or Obstructive Azoospermia.


Sperm production problems:

The sperm production problems may be hormonal or testicular.

Hormonal:
The testicles need pituitary hormones to produce sperm. If pituitary hormones are absent or severely decreased, the testes will not produce sperm. Importantly, men who take androgens (steroids) either by mouth or injections for body building, shut down their production of pituitary hormones for sperm production. It is common in 2% of azoospermia
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